The Fell Pony Museum
The Fell Pony Museum
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Sources from which this site was built

people, books and Papers, web sites

All images and content are copyright. Please contact the Web Minion if you wish to use anything from the site. Also: if you find a broken link please let us know. There are so many here that it is difficult to ensure they all remain current.

We would like to thank the following who provided sources of material: the success of this site is attributable to their generosity, and any mistakes are ours. This huge list of people is in the order in which we approached them for source material.

The web sites are in order of the historical period of the material.

The books and papers are in alphabetical order of author.

None of this implies any preferences!

Thank You to all.

Kendal Museum, Kendal, Cumbria, UK: Sound of the pack pony bell collar (17th Century page)

The Council of the Fell Pony Society: for their support and encouragement and use of Archive material

Clive Richardson, Ulverston, Cumbria: Much detail, largely from "The Fell Pony", about the history of the breed; also for some images and a great deal of discussion of the project

David Trotter, Tebay, Penrith, Cumbria: Interview material about farming

John Gate, Tebay, Penrith, Cumbria: Interview material about farming

Barbara Muller, who was a contact for the Fell Pony Society in Germany: Images of Fell Ponies, and much helpful advice

Paul Metcalfe, Killington, Cumbria: Interview material about trotting

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Jennie Hill, Greenholme, Tebay, Penrith, Cumbria: Images of farming and deer stalking in the 1940s

Thomas Capstick, Murthwaite, Sedbergh, Cumbria: Photographs of Fell ponies, Murthwaite youngstock and Tebay Jenny

Andrew Humphries, Ivegill, Penrith, Cumbria: Assistance with photo material from "Seeds of Change" 1996, a centenary celebration of Newton Rigg's "Farm School"

Bill Mossop, MD of the "Cumberland and Westmorland Herald" : Photographs from "Westmorland Agriculture 1800-1900" 1910, by FW Garnett (Fell Pony Society secretary)

County Archives, Kendal: For their patience in bringing out the FPS archive and innumerable maps of the borders of Cumberland and Westmorland

Kendal Library Local Collection: Access to historic prints and to microfiche archive copies of the "Westmorland Gazette"

Penrith Library: Access to microfiche archive copies of the "Cumberland and Westmorland Herald" and other Penrith newspapers

Alison O'Neill: Photograph of Fell pony Tebay Vespa

Mr & Mrs Morland, Lunesdale Stud : Video clips of Fells in action

Mr & Mrs W S Potter, Greenholme Stud : Photographs of Fells

Books and Papers

Alphabetical by Author Surname

Adye, F, 1903 ed: Horse-Breeding & Management. Everett, London.

Alderson, GLH, 2005: The numerical and genetic status of native horse and pony breeds in Britain, in Conservation genetics of endangered horse breeds, EAAP publication No. 116, 2005

Andersson, L. S. et al. (2012). Mutations in DMRT3 affect locomotion in horses and spinal circuit function in mice. Nature, 488: 642-646 DOI: 10.1038/nature11399

Appleby, Records of the Ancient Corporation, Memoranda/Minute book, Volume 1 - 1614-1661 (WSMB/A) in the County Record Office in Kendal.  

AUSTEN, J, 1813, Pride and Prejudice.

ATKIN, M, Viking Race Courses? ENGLISH PLACE NAME SOCIETY, Journal 10 (1977-1978)

ASHE, G, 1985: The Discovery of King Arthur (London: Guild Publishing)

BAILEY and CULLEY, 1794: A General View of the Agriculture of Northumberland. (Board of Agriculture, later the Royal Agricultural Society)

BAILEY and CULLEY, 1794: A General View of the Agriculture of Cumberland. (Board of Agriculture, later the Royal Agricultural Society. The copy in Carlisle Library, printed in Newcastle in 1797, binds the Northumberland survey, above, with the Cumberland one and with that of Anthony Pringle for Westmorland, see below; that combination ran to at least 3 editions and can be found online at the Hathi Trust )

BEAUFORT, Duke of, 1890, reprinted 1986: Badminton Library: Driving (reprint, Southampton: Ashford Press)

BENDREY, R: Horse, in Sykes N and O’Connor T (eds.), 2010, Extinctions and Invasions: A Social History of British Fauna. Windgather Press.

BIBBY, M A, in Horse Breeds and Human Society,
Purity, Identity and the Making of the Modern Horse,
Edited By Kristen Guest, Monica Mattfeld, 2019: "How northern was Pistol? The Galloway nag as self-identity and satire in an age of supra-national horse trading." pp 69-85. (London, Routledge)

BREEZE, D J, 1983: Roman Forts in Britain (Princes Risborough UK: Shire Archaeology)

BRIGDEN, R, 1983: Agricultural Hand Tools (Shire Albums)

BROWN, Capt. T, 1830: Biographical Sketches and Authentic Anecdotes of Horses (Edinburgh)

BOWDEN, C, 2001: The Last Horsemen (London: Granada / Andre Deutsch)

BOWMAN, A K, 1994: Life and Letters on the Roman Frontier (New York: Routledge)

CAESAR, War Commentaries: Translators: W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn, 1869: New York: Harper & Brothers

CAMDEN, 1607, Britannia p 692-3

CHARLTON, R B, 1952: A Lifetime with Ponies (London: Hodder and Stoughton)

CHARTRAND, Magnusson, Heath, Harrison & Durham, 2006. The Vikings: voyagers of discovery and plunder. Osprey Publishing.

CHURCH, A J, & BRODRIBB, W J, 1942: The Complete Works of Tacitus

CLUTTON-BROCK, J, 1992: Horse Power (London: Natural History Museum)

CUMBERLAND & WESTMORLAND HERALD: back numbers from 1865 on microfiche in Penrith Library

DAMPIER, A J, 1987: Kingdom of the Work Horse (Chorley, Lancs UK: Countryside Publications)

DAVIES, R. W. “The Supply of Animals to the Roman Army and the Remount System.” Latomus, vol. 28, no. 2, 1969, pp. 429–459. JSTOR, Accessed 21 July 2021.

DEFOE, D, 1724 - 1727: A Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain, Letter XXI, cited in Dent, 1962: A History of British Native Ponies, p170.

DEFOE, D, 1726: The Complete English Tradesman. [LONDON 1726, EDINBURGH 1839] Gutenberg text

DENT, A & MACHIN-GOODALL, D, 1962: Foals of Epona (Galley Press) reprinted 1988 as A History of British Native Ponies (London: J A Allen)

DENT, A, 1987: Horses in Shakespeare's England (London: J A Allen)

DEPARTMENT of Environment 1963: Shap Abbey (London: HMSO)

EDWARDS, L, 1952: Thy Servant the Horse (London: Country Life)

EWART, G E, 1974: The Farm and The Village

FARRER, W, 1902: Lancashire Pipe Rolls and Early Charters (Liverpool: H Young & Sons)

FAWCETT, W, 1935: Horses and Ponies (London: Routledge)

FELL PONY SOCIETY, 1981: Fell Pony Society Stud Books 1898-1980, and annual updates thereafter (Cumbria, UK: FPS); Reports, 1912 onward

FISHER, E., 2001: We Ploughed by Moonlight

FITZGERALD, I, 2000: Dales Ponies (Suffolk, UK: Whittet Books)

GARNETT, F W, 1912: Westmorland Agriculture 1800-1900 - can be read online at

GOODRICH, SG, 1859: Illustrated Natural History of the Animal Kingdom, DERBY & JACKSON, New York.

GOULD, J, 1998: Letocetum: the Rise and Decline of a Roman Posting Station. (Walsall, UK: Gould)

HARPER, K (compiler), 2002: Life on an Eden Valley Farm: Growing up in the 1920s. Recollections from Eden Day Care Centres, Jubilee Celebrations. (Penrith, Cumbria: Age Concern Eden) Priced @ £1.50: tel +44 (0) 1768 863618

HINDLE, P, (3rd ed 1998): Medieval Roads and Tracks (Princes Risborough: Shire Archaeology series)

HOLLOWS, D., 2011: Voices In The Dark: Pony Talk & Mining Tales 2011. ISBN-10: 1445708981, ISBN-13: 978-1445708980

HODGSON, N, 2000: "Where did they put the horses?" revisited: the recent discovery of cavalry barracks in the Roman forts at Wallsend and South Shields on Hadrian's Wall. In Freeman, Bennett, Fiema and Hoffmann Edd., "Limes XVIII" (Proceedings of the XVIIIth International Congress of Roman Frontier Studies, Amman, Jordan: 887-894.)

HUMPHRIES A, 1996: Seeds of Change (Penrith, Cumbria UK: Newton Rigg)

HUTCHINSON, W, 1794: The History of the County of Cumberland And Some Places Adjacent (London: F. Jollie)

HYLAND, A, 1990: Equus: The Horse in the Roman World (London: Batsford)

HYLAND, A, 1999: The Horse in the Middle Ages (Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing)

JANSEN et al., 2002: Mitochondrial DNA and the origins of the domestic horse

JOHNSTONE, C, 2004: A biometric study of Equids in the Roman World (York University, PhD Thesis).

KEEGAN, T, 1973: The Heavy Horse, its harness and harness decoration (London: Pelham Books)

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LAMB, A J R, 1938: The Story of the Horse (London: Maclehose)

LAMBERT, J et al, 1996: Transect Through Time (Lancaster, UK: Lancaster Imprints)

LAWRENCE, J, 1829: The horse in all his varieties (London)


LOW, David, 1846: On the domesticated animals of the British islands (London: Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans)

LYSONS, D & LYSONS, S [date uncertain: 1880s?]: Topographical and Historical Account of the County of Cumberland (London: Cadell)

MANNIX & Co., 1851. History, Topography and Directory of Westmorland

MARKHAM G, 1660: The Horseman's Honour or The Beautie of Horsemanship

MILLARD, S, 1987: One Fell Swoop (3rd ed 2010, Greenholme, UK: Millard) priced @ 5.00 plus postage and packing; web site; e mail.

MILLARD, S, 2005: Hoofprints in Eden (Hayloft, Kirkby Stephen, UK) 17.00

MILLARD, S: Jackdaw E Books, - Hoofprints in Eden and One Fell Swoop plus other historical, humorous and equestrian subjects.

MOORE, W, 2009: Wedlock (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson)

MORGAN, M, 2004: Wellington's Victories. A Guide to Sharpe's Army 1797 - 1815 p. 55. (Michael O'Mara Books Ltd.)

NEAT, T, 2002: The Horseman's Word: Blacksmiths and Horsemanship in 20th Centrury Scotland. Birlinn Press.

ORTON Playground fund, 1998: Memories of Orton: A Westmorland Parish Remembered. (Kirkby Stephen, Cumbria: Cerberus Printers)

PALMER, W T, 1952: Byways in Lakeland (London: Robert Hale)

PIGOT AND SLATER, (1850s): Topography of the British Isles 

POLO PONY STUD BOOK, 1898-1902: Vols V to VIII

PRINGLE, A, 1794: A General View of the Agriculture of the County of Westmorland (Board of Agriculture, later the Royal Agricultural Society)

RICHARDSON, C, 1981: The Fell Pony (Clapham, Lancs, UK: Dalesman Publications)

RICHARDSON, C, 1990: The Fell Pony (London: J A Allen)

ROLLINSON W, 1996: Life and Traditions of the Lake District (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson)

RYDER, ML, 1961:The Animal Remains at Kirkstall Abbey, in the Agricultural History Review.

SMITH, 1810: General View of the Agriculture of Galloway, available from The Internet Archive,

SINCLAIR, J, 1814: General Report of the Agricultural State, and Political Circumstances, of Scotland. (Edinburgh, Constable)

SPREULL, J, 1706: The Accompt Current between England and Scotland Balanced, cited in Dent, 1962: A History of British Native Ponies, p169. Can be found online in Google Books.

STEPHENS, H, 1860. The Book of the Farm. Available via Google books.

Emma M. Svenssona, Ylva Telldahlb, Emma Sjölingc, Anneli Sundkvistc, Helena Hulthc, Torstein Sjøvoldd, Anders Götherströma, 2011: Coat colour and sex identification in horses from Iron Age Sweden

THURLOW CRAIG, C W, 1961: Tackle Pony Trekking This Way (London: Stanley Paul)

TODD, Dr J, 2003: Agriculture 750 Years Ago; speaking to Shap Local History Society, April 2003

WEBSTER, J, 1794: A General View of the Agriculture of Galloway (Edinburgh: Board of Agriculture)

WESTMORLAND GAZETTE: back numbers from 1818 on microfiche in Kendal Library Local Collection

WILDMAN, S G, 1971: The Black Horsemen (London: John Baker)

WILLIAMS, D, 1997: Late Saxon Stirrup-Strap Mounts (CBA Res Rep III)

WILLIAMS, L A, 1975: Road Transport in Cumbria in the Nineteenth Century (London: G Allen and Unwin)

WILKINSON, P, 2000: What the Romans Did For Us (London: Boxtree)

WILSON, J, 1978: A Cumbrian Blacksmith (Clapham, Lancs, UK: Dalesman Publications)

WILSON, W, 1885 (reprinted 1983): Coaching in Lakeland (reprinted Carlisle: Carel Press)

WINTON, CL, et al., 2020: Genetic diversity within and between British and Irish breeds: The maternal and paternal history of native ponies, in Ecology and Evolution (John Wiley & Sons) Ltd.

WORLD OF WONDER MAGAZINE, 1933(?), collected issues (London: Fleetway House)

YOUATT, W, 1820: The Different Breeds of English Horse (and subsequent reprints under the titles "The Horse" and "Youatt on The Horse")

XENOPHON, trans. Morgan, M H: 3rd ed 1962: The art of Horsemanship. (London: J A Allen)

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Online resources

chronological (Tacitus, Germania, trans Church & Brodribb 1877) Curle, J, 1911: A ROMAN FRONTIER POST AND ITS PEOPLE; The Fort of Newstead in the Parish of Melrose. James Maclehose and Sons for the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (Caesar, War Commentaries: Translators: W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn, 1869: New York: Harper & Brothers.)

THE ROMAN ARMY & NAVY IN BRITANNIA 55 BC-410 A (domain no longer active) (Excellent resource on Roman legionary and other military information, Roman Inscriptions in Britain, locations, maps.) Vindolanda Tablets Online a scholarly resource on the Horse Goddess, Epona

Karl Jones (Pliny the Elder, on Horses - from Naturalis Historia) (Site no longer active.)

Britannia (Roman Military Sites in Britain.) (Site no longer active) (Tacitus: Historiae, in Latin.) (Methods of harnessing horses) (Site no longer active)

to top (Arthurian information.) (Arthurian information.) (Site no longer active) (Animal Bone Metrical Archive Project, University of Southampton) (The Huntington Librar which holds Chaucer manuscripts.) (The Paston Letters) (Danes in Yorkshire.) (Site no longer active) (Cumbrian ballad) (Abstract of paper discussing horse sizes from 600 BC to AD 1600.) (Page no longer available)

DONALDSON, G, 1942: The Attitude of Whitgift and Bancroft to the Scottish Church, XII (late 16th C England) and - the Philological Museum's pages from "Brittannia" written in 1607 by William Camden, about Cumberland and Westmorland; a noble attempt to summarise the area, from the relatively limited sources of his time. (Scottish Statistical Surveys 1791-1799; requires login)

TB ancestry and the debt owed to the Galloway stock - - Galloways as a foundation of the Thoroughbred racehorse. "Past Presented", an online transcript of the "Cumberland Chronicle or Whitehaven Intelligencer" The British Newspaper Archive Kirkcudbrightshire web site Northern Mines, colliery reminiscences and photos of ponies working underground. Ordnance Survey free service

Jackdaw E Books, - Hoofprints in Eden and One Fell Swoop plus other historical, humorous and equestrian subjects.

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Last updated 30 July, 2021 .
Copyright © since 2000 The Fell Pony and Countryside Museums.